Heavy Water Inhaltsverzeichnis
Schweres Wasser ist chemisch gesehen Wasser mit der Summenformel D₂O. Von „normalem“ Wasser H₂O unterscheidet es sich dadurch, dass die „normalen“ Wasserstoffatome des Isotops Protium durch schwere Wasserstoffatome des Isotops Deuterium ersetzt. Schweres Wasser (Deuteriumoxid) ist chemisch gesehen Wasser mit der Summenformel D2O. Dezember ; ↑ seforlag.se: Arak – Heavy Water Production Plant; ↑ S-a dus pe Apa Grea a Sâmbetei – moștenirea nucleară. Der packende Dokumentarfilm "Heavy Water" taucht tief ein in die Kultur des Surfens und folgt dem charismatischen Big-Wave-Surfer Nathan Fletcher durch die. Many translated example sentences containing "heavy water" – German-English dictionary and search engine for German translations. Übersetzung im Kontext von „heavy water“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: We want pounds of heavy water by Easter next year.
heavy water Bedeutung, Definition heavy water: 1. water in which ordinary hydrogen atoms have been replaced by deuterium atoms 2. water in which. The permeability of the mammalian erythrocyte to deuterium oxide (heavy water). Journal of Cellular and Comparative Physiology , 7 (2), Many translated example sentences containing "heavy water" – German-English dictionary and search engine for German translations.
In heavy water, each hydrogen atom is indeed heavier, with a neutron as well as a proton in its nucleus. This isotope of hydrogen is called deuterium, and heavy water's more scientific name is deuterium oxide, abbreviated as D 2 0.
With the weight of extra neutrons, heavy-water ice will sink to the bottom of a beaker filled with ordinary H 2 0.
Nuclear power plants harness the energy of countless atoms of uranium splitting apart, or fissioning, in a chain reaction.
Heavy water can help keep such a chain reaction going. As each uranium atom breaks apart, it shoots out neutrons that can go on to split other atoms.
But the neutrons are much more likely to trigger new fission events if they are slowed down. Like traffic cops, heavy water's deuterium atoms effectively curb the pace of neutrons without capturing them.
Nuclear reactors that use heavy water can employ a form of uranium commonly found in nature U rather than requiring so-called enriched uranium, which contains a higher percentage of easily split uranium atoms U but is expensive to produce.
Heavy-water nuclear reactors generate electricity in China above , Canada, and India. No commercial plants in the U. In its natural state, common uranium U can't generate destructive nuclear explosions.
It either must be enriched—made more concentrated in a rare form of uranium U —or converted into plutonium Pu Heavy water can play a role in breeding weapons-grade plutonium from common uranium.
In a heavy-water nuclear reactor, when neutrons bombard U, some uranium atoms absorb an additional neutron and are transformed into Pu On the eve of World War II, scientists both in Germany and Great Britain realized that heavy water could be used in this way to make nuclear weapons.
And because this potential still exists today, the International Atomic Energy Agency and various national governments monitor the production and distribution of heavy water.
Heavy water provides a path to turn common uranium into plutonium, one of the easily split or "fissile" materials that fuels nuclear bombs.
When Norsk Hydro began producing heavy water in , Norway became the first country with a commercial heavy-water plant.
The Nazi invasion of Norway in transferred control of the plant—and most of the world's heavy water—to Germany. In the early s, Allied countries joined the race for heavy water, and by , the Manhattan Project had made 20 tons of the precious liquid, more than enough to fill the first heavy-water nuclear reactor.
America's atomic weapons program ultimately relied more on graphite than on heavy water in nuclear reactors, but the United States has continued to produce heavy water for military use ever since the '40s.
Today, Canada and India, which both rely on heavy-water nuclear power plants for electricity, make the most heavy water.
Other countries with heavy-water production facilities include Argentina, Iran, Romania, and Russia. Satellite images taken in February reveal a heavy-water plant in Arak, Iran.
Iran claims the facility will help the country produce electricity, not plutonium for bombs. In , chemists Arthur Lamb and Richard Leen at New York University tried to find a definitive value for the density of pure water, but despite meticulous experiments, they kept getting varying results.
Their "failure" was, in retrospect, important evidence for the existence both of heavy water and of isotopes—atoms of an element that have the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons and, therefore, different weights.
That same year, independently, the notion of an isotope was proposed for the first time. The separation occurs based on an equilibrium and the differences in equilibrium at the two different temperatures.
The equilibrium equation is: . The main reason that this process works is a result of hydrogen sulfide gas being circulated between hot and cold towers.
First, fresh water flows into the low temperature stage along with deuterium-enriched hydrogen sulfide gas. As a result of the equilibrium properties at this temperature, deuterium migrates preferentially from the enriched hydrogen sulfide to the water, creating heavy water.
This enriched water is then taken off, and more fresh water enters the high temperature stage along with the hydrogen sulfide gas now slightly depleted in deuterium.
Here, any deuterium from the fresh water moves preferentially to the hydrogen sulfide gas, enriching it. This enriched gas then moves back to the low temperature stage, and works to further enrich the heavy water.
Normal water from the high temperature stage, now depleted, is drawn off. A cascade is then set up so "enriched" water—water with more deuterium— is fed into the cold tower and enriched again.
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Climate Feedback. Ocean Acidification. Rising Sea Level. Heavy water Figure 1. A heavy water molecule.
Figure 2. Sample setup of the Girdler sulfide process , showing the hot and cool columns along with where enriched and depleted water is drawn off.
June 16, Heavy Water [Online]. What Is Heavy Water? Is Heavy Water Radioactive? June 17, Heavy Water Production [Online].heavy water Bedeutung, Definition heavy water: 1. water in which ordinary hydrogen atoms have been replaced by deuterium atoms 2. water in which. Übersetzung Englisch-Deutsch für heavy water im PONS Online-Wörterbuch nachschlagen! Gratis Vokabeltrainer, Verbtabellen, Aussprachefunktion. Englisch-Deutsch-Übersetzungen für heavy water [D2O] im Online-Wörterbuch seforlag.se (Deutschwörterbuch). The permeability of the mammalian erythrocyte to deuterium oxide (heavy water). Journal of Cellular and Comparative Physiology , 7 (2),